bad-idea-sign

Twelve DevOps Anti-Patterns

So you wanna do DevOps? Okay, but before you start, let’s have a look at some of the things you shouldn’t do.

In the good old days, we just called them “bad ideas”, but along came diplomacy and political correctness, out went the “brain storm” and in came the “idea shower” and with it came the “anti-pattern”.

If the “pattern” is the right way, then inherently the “anti-pattern” is the wrong – and so to stop you going wrong, we’ve compiled this list (with a little help from the DevOps community).

1. DevOps is a process

Not exactly. It’s a philosophy. It’s a way of thinking. DevOps is supported by process and tools.

DevOps according to Gene Kim, is underpinned by 3 core principles known as the “Three Ways”

The First Way emphasizes the performance of the entire system – the value stream.

The Second Way is about shorting and amplifying feedback loops.

The Third Way is about creating a culture that fosters continual learning and understanding.

http://itrevolution.com/pdf/Top11ThingsToKnowAboutDevOps.pdf

2. Agile equals DevOps?

If you’re asking this question, then you’re probably running some agile process. That’s good. You’ve got a software development process that compliments DevOps, but Agile doesn’t mean you’ve adopted DevOps.

DevOps is an agile enabler allowing operations to collaborate supporting a more continuous flow of work into IT Operations and out into production where customers can realize its value.

3. Rebrand your ops/dev/any team as the DevOps

CIO: “I want to embrace DevOps over the coming year.”

MGR: “Already ready done, we changed the department signage this morning. We are so awesome we now have 2 DevOps teams.”

Yeah great. And I bet you now have lots of “DevOps” engineers walking round too. If you’re lucky they may sit next to each other at lunch.

4. Start a separate DevOps group

Go on. I dare you. Done it? Well done. You’ve implemented DevOps. Actually what you just did is create yet another silo. Now you’ve got yourself another team you’ve got to try and integrate. Another team with walls to breakdown. Maybe you could go back and rebrand (see AP: x) and create 3 DevOps teams then you’d be super awesome.

DevOps is not about cherry picking some developers and some IT Operations people and silo’ing them off. You’ve got to embrace and embed. Collapse the development team into the ops team or vice-versa. You need to fully break down the barriers / walls / guards between the teams and mould them into a single unit with shared goals and responsibilities.

http://www.slideshare.net/realgenekim/2012-velocity-london-devops-patterns-distilled

5. The hostile takeover

DevOps. So that’s a word that starts with “Dev”. That means development lead, because development comes first…… Problem?

DevMgr – “Er, we’re now doing DevOps. My guys need to learn the production systems.”

OpsMgr – “Er….ok. So who’s going to be developing the code?”

The word DevOps is clever. It’s a portmanteau. This means the combination of two words, to form a new word, which gives a new meaning. It even delivers some efficiency. It doesn’t mean we took the word operations and replaced it with the word development. So why would you try and adopt DevOps in that manner?

DevOps requires both groups to recognise their key skills. Share what needs to be shared to collaborate. Learn what needs to be learnt to improve. It does not mean retraining. It does not mean cross-skilling (however, this may be a welcome side-effect). It does mean providing feedback and visibility to improve.

http://www.slideshare.net/realgenekim/2012-velocity-london-devops-patterns-distilled

6. DevOps is a buzz word

If you think DevOps is a buzz word, then you’ve probably been using “The Cloud” as a misnomer too. DevOps is a word, you got that right. Actually, it’s a portmanteau of Development and IT Operations (I’ll collect my gold star from teacher later).

DevOps is more than just a cool buzz word. It’s a state of mind. You must embrace its values, you must help others embrace its values and you must continually improve yourself and help others to improve for it to be successful. Once you throw away the BS and start collaborating you might get people to think your catchy new word “DevOps” might actually be cool.

http://www.slideshare.net/realgenekim/2012-velocity-london-devops-patterns-distilled

7. Sell DevOps as a silver bullet

DevOps is voodoo. You basically get your Development team and your IT Operations team together. They smoke some peyote and then sacrifice a chicken. Once you’ve done that your organisation will be revolutionised. You’ll be able to ship software faster than ever before. Configuration will be self-managing. Your deployment tools will become self-aware. Your development and IT Operations teams will have a new found harmony.

Get this….. DevOps is hard work! For most it requires Culture Change! That’s one of the hardest things you’ll ever attempt. For seasoned development and IT Operations teams you’re about to try and turn their world up-side down. Don’t try and do it overnight or you will fail.

8. DevOps means Developers Managing Production

No. Hell No and No again. I’m so incensed you’ll just have to read this….

9. DevOps is Development-driven release management

Let me get 2 things clear;

  1. DevOps is not development driven.
  2. DevOps is not IT Operations driven.

If you want a developer driven environment, fine, go create one. Just don’t call it DevOps. It’s not.

Take a look at this article for example.

http://www.computerweekly.com/cgi-bin/mt-search.cgi?IncludeBlogs=113&tag=release%20management&limit=20

“Within DevOps, programmers are programmers.” – Right on!

“Equally, within DevOps, operations staff are operations staff.” – We’re cooking now!

“Traditionally, getting software out to production can be either the responsibility of operations, or of the development team.”

Hang on……

“IT operations teams will have established and trusted deployment strategies in place that minimise downtime and ensure stability at the expense of agility and speed of response.”

Yep, we’re back on track…… and then bam!

“Development-driven release management” – WTF? It gets worse

“Development-driven release management goes the other way and looks at how deployment can be carried out as often and easily as possible. However, these deployments aren’t necessarily into production……………From a process standpoint, continuous delivery has two big requirements: first, the process itself has to be solid beyond development. This means that it has to be as solid as any process that a traditional IT operations team might put into place.”

No. Non. Nej. Na. Nee. Nein.

Development-driven anything may be a process. It’s just not DevOps. Replacing your IT Operations team with an automated deployment process is nonsense. Please don’t try this at home folks!

10. We can’t do DevOps – We’re Unique

Yes you are, you little beauty you! But you’re not special enough that you can’t adopt DevOps. I bet you’re the best developer out there; you code quicker than lighting, and deliver the sort of code that makes grown men cry with joy. No? Okay, so you’re the most awesome Ops Guy on planet. If Chuck Norris were an IT Operations Engineer he’d be want to be you. However, you and your organisation don’t have some unique factor that won’t allow you to adopt DevOps. So give it a go!

Jesse Robbins from OpsCode has some good advice for getting started;

  • Start Small – Build Trust
  • Create Champions
  • Build Confidence
  • Celebrate Success
  • Exploit Circumstance

http://www.slideshare.net/jesserobbins/cloud-expo-jesserobbinsopscode20130129b

https://www.ibm.com/developerworks/mydeveloperworks/blogs/ambler/entry/adoption_antipattern_we_re_special?lang=en

11. We can’t do DevOps – We’ve got the wrong people

Well why did you hire them? That’s right – they’re awesome! If you don’t think that, then you need to take a long hard look at yourself, then go and discover the real hidden talents in your team.

Someone told me recently that they couldn’t do DevOps because “they have the wrong developers or the wrong ops people…”. So they have developers who can’t code? I thought to myself, “my organisation has the wrong developers, people who can’t code, they run HR and Marketing!”

DevOps fosters a collaborative working relationship between Development and IT Operations. This collaboration can extend right through the organisation further enhancing working relationships between teams.

You don’t have the wrong people. You have the wrong thought process. Deal with it.

12. Collaboration when the S**T hits the fan

Ok genius. You f**ked up. So what? We all do it. But now you want your IT Operations guys out of bed at 2am to clean-up something they know nothing about. They are IT Operations engineers – not the “fixer” like Michael Clayton. Waiting until an error occurs during a deployment for Development and IT Operations to collaborate sucks.

It’s too late for this problem….. but maybe not for the next. You have your Development team and your IT Operations team talking (or swearing at 2am) with each other, but at least they are talking. Keep the dialog going. Get a retrospective review of what happened and how you can fix it going forward. If you have encountered this situation, then try and keep the dialog going with between your teams. Open the communication channels with Development and IT Operations early. There’s hope for you yet!

http://cdn.dzone.com/sites/all/files/refcardz/rc145-010d-continuousdelivery_0.pdf

– TheDevMgr

btf

DevOps – Back to the Future?

In my first ever development role I was luckily enough to work in a completely virtualised environment.

I could, with a single script, build a complete development environment just for me. I could compile my code and deploy into my test environment automatically, and when I was testing – I had tools I could use to trace execution flow down every path in my code. If I needed any assistance, there was a dedicated Operations Guy who was an expert in Automation who sat 3 desks away and could answer all my problems.

DevOps Heaven, right?

This was in 1990.

The operating system was IBM MVS/ESA running on VM/370 (which pretty much invented the term “hypervisor”), and the “Operations Guy” was called a “systems programmer” (or “SysProg” for short). At the time we were writing NetView which I guess was a kind of Nagios equivalent for VTAM/SNA networks, although it also had automation capabilities a la ScienceLogic. Whilst we were at it we also wrote an in-memory, object-oriented, non-relational (noSQL) database called RODM (Resource Object Data Manager) thereby pre-empting “innovations” like memcached, Couchbase and the current noSQL movement by about 20 years… but I digress!

 “What has been is what will be, and what has been done is what will be done, and there is nothing new under the sun.” (Ecclesiastes 1:9).

Control within organisations tends to moves in cycles from centralised command/control mindsets to distributed autonomous teams and back again, in the same way computing resources have moved from centralised mainframes to distributed PC’s and now are moving back centrally again as “The Cloud”.

Make no mistake, I am not denigrating in any way the goals of the DevOps movement (or the Cloud for that matter) by pointing out that some of it might have been done before! Each expansion and contraction, dispersion and centralisation, of computing power needs to be matched with the correct management and organisational models.

I firmly believe that removing the silos within IT Departments and building cross-functional autonomous teams with end-to-end responsibility is the correct model to match the incredible flexibility we now possess with “on-demand” Cloud Computing (although I might mention that the term “on-demand” was an IBM slogan in 2002…).

But, as always, “Those who don’t know history are destined to repeat it.” (Burke or Santayana, take your pick). So what can we learn from the past that might be relevant to the DevOps movement today?

Let’s start with 5 quick lessons:

  1.  “To err is human” – automation can reduce human error that leads to expensive downtime (“Downtime caused by incorrect manual configuration estimated at £48K/hr or $72K/hr in 2012”) but nothing, and I mean nothing, seriously screws things up like getting your automation wrong. Want every application to suddenly stop working simultaneously? Yup, that change-password script didn’t quite work the way you planned.
  2. Back in the day we had a job role called an “Operator” – which was a soul destroying shift job basically watching batch, automated processes run. So for everyone whose “empowered” by DevOps make sure you aren’t creating a under-class at the same time!
  3. Aligning reward and recognition – just because you’ve created your awesome cross-functional DevOps team doesn’t mean the organisation’s HR function has kept pace. Nothing destroys team cohesion faster that misaligned reward and recognition. It’s worth noting that lessons from anthropology show us that primates have an innate sense of fairness/justice… so it’s not enough to just ensure that the “good” get rewarded, it’s equally important that the “bad” get punished (or sacked). If management doesn’t control this the “group” will by means of in-group formation and ostracism. Both of which are anathema to high-performance teams.
  4. Make room for exceptions. Not everyone will want to work in an Agile DevOps world. Back in the day we had a short, bitingly sarcastic, New Yorker on our team. He wouldn’t be my first pick for a multi-disciplinary DevOps team… but man that boy could code! I’m talking the kinda code that made something hideously complex look blindingly obvious and had everyone slapping themselves upside that head saying “gee, why didn’t I think of that?”. Well, probably cos he was just better than you, numbnuts! So, make some space in the corner for misfits that don’t play nice with others and work out a way to incorporate their strengths into your DevOps model while patching over their weaknesses.
  5. Make environment building part of the Development pattern – I saw a tweet the other day that said “Dev: “It works on my machine, just not on the server.” Me: “Ok, backup your mail. We’re putting your laptop into production.” – For me, this is one of the great messages of DevOps – get the Operational requirements for the run-time environment written into the Development process as user stories and ensure that it DOES work (in your virtualised, “infrastructure as code” environment) before you say it’s ready. Gene Kim calls this his “DevOps favourite pattern #3”. That’s what the SysProg did for us, back in the day, and it works.

What lessons do you have from “the good old days” that might be relevant to the DevOps movement?

– TheDevMgr

scream

DevOps does not equal “Developers managing Production”

I’ve had a few conversations lately, mainly with smaller start-ups or development houses, who tell me “yes, we work in a DevOps model”.

What they really mean is “We pretty much have no Operations capability at all, and we rely on the Developers to build, deploy and manage all of the environments from Development to Test to Production. Mostly by hand. Badly”.

As someone from a predominately Operations background I find this quite frustrating!

Operations is a discipline, with its own patterns & practices, methodologies, models, tools, technology etc. Just because modern cloud hosting makes it easier to deploy servers without having to know one end of a SCSI cable from another doesn’t mean you “know” how to do Operations (just like my knowledge of SQL is enough to find out the information I need to know monitor and manage the environment but a long way from what’s required to develop a complex, high-performing website).

DevOps means Development and Operations working together collaboratively to put the Operations requirements about stability, reliability, performance into the Development practices, whilst at the same time bringing Development in the management of the Production environment (e.g. by putting them on-call, or by leveraging their development skills to help automate key processes).

It doesn’t mean a return to the laissez-faire “anything goes” model where developers have unfettered access to the Production environment 24x7x365 and can change things as and when they like.

Change control was invented for a reason, and whilst change control has becomes its own “cottage industry” involving ever more bureaucratic layers of “management by form filling” the basic discipline remains sound – think about what you want to change, automate it if you can, test it, understand what to do if it screws up (roll back plan), document the change, make sure everyone knows when, where and how you are making the change, and make sure the business owner approves.

When I took over the Operations of a high-volume UK website about 8 years ago I spend the first 3 weekend working fighting fires and troubleshooting Production issues.

My first action after that baptism of fire was to revoke access to production for all developers (over howls of protests). Availability and stability immediately went up. Deafening silence from Development – Invitations to beers from the Business owners.

Next step was to hire a build manager to take over the Build and Deployment automation, and a Release Manager to coordinate with the Business what was going into each release, when etc. End result – 99.98% availability, with more releases, being deployed within business hours without impacting the users, and a lower TCO. The Business was much happier, and so was the Development Manager, as he was losing far fewer developer-hours to fire-fighting Production issues, and hence the overall development velocity improved considerably. Win-Win.

Was that a DevOps anti-pattern? Did I create more silos? Probably… but in a fire-fight a battlefield commander doesn’t sit everyone down for a sharing circle on how they are going to address the mutual challenge of killing the other guy before he kills you. Sometimes a command & control model is the right one for the challenge you face (like getting some supressing fire on the target while you radio in for some air support or artillery!).

That said, once we had developed a measure of stability we did move partway to a more DevOps pattern – we had developers on-call 24×7 as 3rd line support, we virtualised our environment(s) and gave Developers more control over them, and we increased our use of automation.

Organisationally we remained siloed however – we were incentivised in different ways (Operations emphasising availability, Development emphasising feature delivery), we remained in essentially a waterfall delivery model and Ops VS Dev was a constant struggle for manpower & resources. All the usual problems that the DevOps movement is trying to address.

In summary, what I am trying to get at is please don’t devalue the “DevOps” concept by saying you do DevOps when you don’t.

Unless you currently do both Development AND Operations separately, and do them well, AND you’re now trying to synthesise a better, more agile, more cloud-oriented way of working that takes the best part of BOTH disciplines… you aren’t doing DevOps!

– TheOpsMgr

poll

What’s the biggest barrier to Continuous Delivery Adoption?

Continuous Delivery is a set of practices and principles aimed at building, testing and releasing software faster and more frequently.

As more teams embrace the DevOps methodology and implement continuous delivery, more platforms and services will move toward a self-service model that encourages this collaboration. But what are the barriers to adoption? For the next month, we’re running a poll to try and understand, what you think prevents companies from adopting continuous delivery.

Maturing the Continuous Delivery Pipeline

The Maturity Model is a useful assessment tool for understanding your organizations level of Continuous Delivery adoption. Many organizations today have achieved what is needed to move from Level-1 (Regressive) to Level-0 (Repeatable), which is a significant accomplishment and as a reader of this blog post, you’re either about to start your journey of improvement or are already underway.

Continuous Delivery Maturity Model
Continuous Delivery Maturity Model

The Maturity Model

The advice for organizations wanting to adopt Continuous Delivery is ever more abundant, but for organizations that started adoption some time ago, the guidance on how to mature the process is still sparse. In this article, we explore one continuous improvement methodology that may help your organization mature its’ Continuous Delivery process.

Humble and Farley outline maturity Level 0 (Repeatable) – as one having process which is documented and partly automated.1 For this to be true, an organization must have first classified its’ software delivery maturity, identified areas for improvement, implemented some change and measured the effect. As Humble observes;

The deployment pipeline is the key pattern that enables continuous delivery.2

Humble also identifies that Deming’s Cycle is a good process to apply to initial adoption. 1 The process, according to Deming, should then be repeated so that further improvements can be planned and implemented; having the advantage the  data and experience from previous cycles is available. This process of continuous improvement is the first step to maturing the continuous delivery process.

Continuous Delivery and Kaizen

Continuous Delivery is a set of practices and principles aimed at building, testing and releasing software faster and more frequently.3 One key philosophy at the heart of Continuous Delivery, is Kaizen. The Japanese word, Kaizen, means continuous improvement. By improving standardized activities and processes, Kaizen aims to eliminate waste.  Within Kaizen are three major principles;

  1. 5S
  2. Standardization
  3. The elimination of waste; known as muda.

The 5S principle characterizes a continuous practice for creating and maintaining an organized and high-performance delivery environment. As 5S has the focus of waste reduction, it appears prudent to explore the 5s methodology as an approach to optimizing the Continuous Delivery pipeline.

What is 5S?

5S is a lean engineering principle focused on waste reduction and removal. The methodology is recursive and continuous and it’s primary goal is to make problems visible  so that they can be addressed.4

There are five primary 5S phases, derived from five Japanese words that translate to; sort (seiri), straighten (seiton), shine (seiso), standardize (seiketsu) and sustain (shitsuke).5

The 5s principle is more commonly applied to workplace organization or housekeeping. Since the delivery pipeline is a key component of the process, it is therefore a fundamental place where work will take place. The pipeline exhibits elements that are common with any physical work environment including;

  1. Tools, process, paperwork.
  2. Storage areas for artifacts, such as files.
  3. A requirement that components must be, physically or virtually, located in the correct location, and that they are connected by process.
  4. Tools and process need maintenance and cleaning. E.g. retention policies.
  5. Systems and procedures can be standardized and can benefit from standardization.

When applied to the delivery pipeline, the five primary 5S phases can be defined as;

  • Phase 1 – sort (seiri)
    • Analysis of processes and tools used in the delivery pipeline. Tools and processes not adding value should be removed.
  • Phase 2 - straighten (seiton)
    • Organization of processes and tools to promote pipeline efficiency.
  • Phase 3 – shine (seiso)
    • Inspection and pro-active/preventative maintenance to ensure clean operation throughout the delivery pipeline.
  • Phase 4 – standardize (seiketsu)
    • Standardization of working practice and operating procedure to ensure consistent delivery throughout pipeline.
  • Phase 5 – sustain (shitsuke)
    • Commitment to maintain standards and to practice the first 4S. Once the 4S’s have been established, they become the new way to operate.

Implementing 5s in the Delivery Pipeline

Experience has shown that there are several key factors that should be considered in the adoption of 5S.

  1. Begin with small changes. Remember that 5s is a continuous and recursive process.
  2. Involvement is crucial.6 Encompass everyone involved in the deployment pipeline.
  3. Create Champions – find leaders who love &  live the philosophy and encourage them to promote it.

5s implementation involves working through each phase (or S) in a methodical way. This is commonly achieved by Kaizen events, which are focused activities, designed to quickly identify and remove wasteful process from the value stream and are one of the prevalent approaches to continuous improvement.

Phase 1 – sort (seiri)

The first step of 5s is to sort. The purpose is to identify what is not needed in the delivery pipeline and remove it.

Additional process and practice can easily creep into the delivery mechanism, especially in the early phases of Continuous Delivery adoption, when you are experimenting.

The removal of items can either mean total elimination of a tool or process, since it is redundant, or the flagging, known as “Red Tagging”, of a tool or process which needs to be evaluated before it is disposed of. The review of red tagged tools and process should evaluate their importance and determine if they are truly required.

Suggested Steps

1. Evaluate all tools and process in the delivery pipeline and determine what is mandatory.

2. Ascertain what is not needed. Assess what it’s elimination status is, e.g. immediately or Red Flag.

3. Remove unnecessary or wasteful tools and  process.

Phase 2 - straighten (seiton)

The second step requires items in the delivery pipeline to be set in order. This requires the pipeline to be arranged so that  maximum efficiency is achieved for delivery.

To achieve seiton, the key components of the automated pipeline should be analysed, and should include the following;

  • Automated build process.
  • Automated unit, acceptance tests including code analysis.
  • Automated deployment process.

It is suggested that for the pipeline to be truly efficient the most commonly used items are the easiest and quickest to locate, such as;

  • Build status reports and metrics including KPI’s such as Mean-time-to-release (MTTR)
  • Automated test coverage, error and defect reports

In this step, actions can also be taken to visually label elements of the pipeline so that demarcation of responsibility  is clear. This may mean categorizing tools, process and target locations E.g. servers into  groups such as production and pre-production or development and test.

Suggested Steps

1. Analyse the value stream including tools and process.

2. Ensure the necessary information is available quickly to those who need it.

3. Visually distinguish or categorize key pipeline components.

Phase 3 – shine (seiso) 

Once the waste has been removed and only what is required has been kept and ordered, the next phase inspects the delivery pipeline to ensure that it’s operation is as clean as possible.

During pipeline execution large amounts of data can be produced. If this information is not dealt with efficiently it can become a waste product, detracting from the value of the delivery process.

Inspection of this data is vital. Data generated in the pipeline is likely to include instrumentation, metrics and logging information, as well as build artifacts and report data.

In context of the delivery pipeline, cleaning can be defined as archiving, roll-up or removal of delivery pipeline data. House keeping routines should be evaluated to ensure that data retention rules are applied and that waste, in the form of build artifacts, metric and report data and instrumentation data are correctly archived or removed as required.

Implementation of this phase requires assignment of cleaning responsibilities and scheduling of cleaning process.

Suggested Steps
1. Inspect data to understand what should be rolled-up, archived or deleted.

2. Ensure that responsibilities for data management are clearly assigned within the team.

3. Create a scheduled, automated cleaning processes.

Phase 4 – standardize (seiketsu)

The primary focus of step four is to ensure that  the working practice, training and operating procedures remain consistent. Standardization allows for continuous improvement and each of the first 3S’s should be regulated.

A critical element of seiketsu is to ensure that the process is reviewed on a regular basis or cycle. This ensures that best practices are maintained and areas  where standards have slipped are quickly identified.

A settled and regular process or practice becomes one that is hard to give up. Therefore,  if standardization, is implemented correctly, it can support culture change.

Suggested Steps

1. Ensure that the team have clear responsibilities for the tasks that need to be completed.

2. Create ownership and pride in the process.

3. Ensure champions provide guidance and support changes to the 5s process.

Phase 5 – sustain (shitsuke)

The purpose of the final phase is to ensure that the 5s process is not a one-time event. To achieve this,  the focus of the fifth  phase centers on culture. To sustain 5s organizations must engage in support, commitment and gainful communication, with the aim of keeping the team devoted to continuous improvement.

There are a number of elements which influence cultural support of 5s . Which elements take precedence varies within every organization and is heavily dependent on the existing culture of that organization. Key points are:

  1. Communication – aims & objectives need to be clear for all  team members.
  2. Education -  5s methodology, concepts and practices need to be communicated.
  3. Recognition -  team members need to feel that their efforts are recognized.

It is interesting to note that the literal translation of shitsuke is discipline. The final phase of 5s can also be one of the hardest to implement.

Suggested Steps

1. Establish an open channel for discussion and feedback, to facilitate continual learning.

2. Adopt the habit of auditing regularly and reward the best teams.

3. Ensure that all  problems are addressed quickly make sure that root cause analysis is completed to discover the cause.

Summary

The adoption of Kaizen events to implement 5s within the Continuous Delivery pipeline can provide significant support to maturing the model, by providing a continuous improvement process within a well-defined and standardized structure.

Lean manufacturing has been using the 5S pratice as a common method for lean implementation for years. Nearly 70% of of lean manufacturing companies use this approach 7, but the use of 5S as an adoption method for lean in software development would appear less common, as it has not be commonly applied to development practices.

Lean software development principles provide the promise of companies becoming more competitive by delivering software faster, increasing quality, and reducing cost leading to greater customer satisfaction, all of which align closely to the key principles of  Continuous Delivery.

– TheDevMgr

References

1. Humble, J. Farley D. (2010). Continuous Delivery: Reliable Software Releases Through Build, Test, and Deployment Automation. Indiana: Addison Wesley. 419.

2.  Humble, J. Farley D. Continuous Delivery: Anatomy of the Deployment Pipeline.  [September 7, 2010.]  InformIT. http://www.informit.com/articles/article.aspx?p=1621865

3. McGarr, Mike. Continuous Delivery. SlideShare.net [June 17, 2011.] http://www.slideshare.net/jmcgarr/continuous-delivery-8341276

4. Liker, Jeffery K. The Toyota Way. New York City : McGraw Hill, 2004.

5. MLG UK. 5S – The Housekeeping Approach Within Lean. MLG UK. [Cited: February 5th 2013] http://www.mlg.uk.com/html/5s.htm

6. Maready, Brian. Transparency = speed . Lean Lessons. [May 27, 2010] http://leanbuilt.blogspot.com/2010/05/transparency-speed.html.

7. Compdata Surveys. Lean Manufacturing and Safety Help Manufacturers Survive Tough Times.  Compdata Surveys. [December 13, 2010.] http://www.compdatasurveys.com/2010/12/13/lean-manufacturing-and-safety-help-manufacturers-survive-tough-times/